*Lesson Plan

Ancient_01. The Great Pyramid of Khufu


Part 1.

Artifacts and Historic Sites at a Glance


The Pyramid of Khufu at a Glance

Grade Level

4th Grade (9-10 years old)


Background knowledge related to the ancient Egyptian pyramids can be acquired in a variety of ways. The goal is to turn historical facts into a series of memorable, interactive activities that actively engage students in the learning process and make it easier for them to retain the information.



Content (Time Duration: 40 minutes)



[Start the lesson by displaying a photo of a pyramid.

Select students in the class who have visited the site, or who have special information about the site, and ask them to share their stories.]

“Do you know what this is?”

‘What do you see in this picture?”

“Have any of you been to this place or have any special information? If so, describe it to us.”



[Show an image and explain what you'll be learning (textbook + videos + puzzle).]

“We will learn about this artifact through a textbook and learning videos, and eventually build it ourselves.”

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“Let's take a look at how to assemble the pyramid puzzle together.”



[Show this picture and talk about the names of the parts and what they were used for. Students' imaginations may come up with a variety of answers. Recognize that the purpose of this lesson is not to find answers, but to have a variety of discussions with students.]

1) King’s chamber

It is located in the center of the pyramid.

A stone coffin, or sarcophagus, was found without the king’s mummy in it.

2) Queen’s chamber

The queen’s coffin was not found here.

3) Stone blocks

The stone blocks get smaller as you go up.

4) Weight relieving chambers

Chambers made to spread weight from the ceiling.

5) Grand Gallery

It is 2 m wide, 8.5 m high, and 47 m long.

6) Ramp for climbing up

7) Entrance

8) Ramp for climbing down

9) A tunnel dug for tomb robbery



[Use a projector or a TV to watch the video together. After watching it, ask students what they felt about the video, and remind them that the artifact was painstakingly created and we have an obligation to preserve it.]

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“What did you think of the video?”

“How many people and how long do you think it would have taken to build something like this a long time ago, without the latest technology and machines?

“If you were to visit this site, what would you most like to do?”



[Below is a summary of the key parts of the artifact, underlining the important parts to help students remember them.

Open 'Google Maps' and type in those keywords to see where this artifact is actually located.]

 Example) giza pyramid (click)


The Pyramid of Khufu is the only surviving structure of the Seven Wonders of the World, built in Giza, Egypt. It is believed that the tomb of King Khufu was built around 2560 BC over a period of 20 years.

 ● Location: A desert plateau of the Egyptian city of Giza

 ● When constructed: It was completed when King Khufu (2589 BC-2566 BC) ruled ancient Egypt.

 ● Size: Each side of the pyramid’s square base is 233 m long. The base spans 53,000 m2 and the pyramid’s volume is 2.5 million cubic meters. The height of the pyramid was shortened to 137 m from the original height of 147 m after the top 10 m part broke off.

 ● Materials: About 2.3 million stone blocks cut from the stones near Giza and limestone from the Nile River. Each stone weighs about 2.5 tons. The whole pyramid weighs almost 6 million tons.

 ● Features:

  - One of the Seven Wonders of the World.

  - One of the three pyramids of Giza together with Khafre’s Pyramid and Menkaure’s Pyramid. As the biggest pyramid in Egypt, it is also called the Great Pyramid.

Part 2.

Interesting Story about Artifacts and Historic Sites


Pyramid of Khufu and Sphinx

Grade Level

4th Grade (9-10 years old)


- Understand the significance and construction of the Pyramid of Khufu.

- Recognize the evolution and designs of pyramids in ancient Egypt.


It's important to keep the session interactive. Asking open-ended questions will allow students to think critically about the topic and share their perspectives. Encouraging creativity in videos and pictures will make the lesson more engaging and memorable for them.






[Start the lesson by displaying a photo of a soccer field.]

“How many of you have been to a soccer game?”

[Show the image of the Pyramid of Khufu.]



“How many football fields would fit under this structure? Let's calculate together.”


Ex) 1 football field = 7,140m2,  This pyramid = 53,000m2  (53,000/7,140≒7.42)




[Watch a short video together to help students understand the passage better. This should give students a visual sense of the culture, the people, and the environment.]

“We're going to watch a short video together to make learning this passage a little easier, and you can rewatch it at any time by scanning the QR code in the textbook.”



[Check the “Key Parts to Explain” and “Main Idea / Supporting Details” before the class. Then read through the content with your students and go through a simple question-and-answer format.]

<Paragraph 1> In Egypt, there is a gigantic pyramid near a city called Giza. It was built a long, long time ago by a king named Khufu. This pyramid is so big that it can fit ten soccer fields at its base, and it's as tall as a building with 45 floors! Can you imagine that? It took about 20 years to build this huge pyramid, and guess what? Over 100,000 workers helped to build it!

Key Parts to Explain

- Location and size comparison of the Pyramid of Khufu

- The duration and workforce involved in building the pyramid

Main Idea / Supporting Details

Gigantic Pyramid in Giza

- Near Giza, Egypt
- Built by King Khufu
- Size: Can fit 10 soccer fields and as tall as a 45-floor building

- Took 20 years and over 100,000 workers.


Q) "What's the significance of the city of Giza in relation to the Pyramid of Khufu?"

A) It's the location near where the Pyramid of Khufu is built.

Q) "Approximately how many people worked on the construction of the Pyramid of Khufu?"

A) Over 100,000 workers helped to build it.

<Paragraph 2> Before Khufu, another king named Djoser wanted a special tomb, so he told his servants to build a step pyramid. They stacked rectangular structures called mastabas on top of each other to make it. After Djoser, many kings, called pharaohs, built pyramids with flat steps for hundreds of years. Today, only 80 pyramids are left standing.

Key Parts to Explain

- The concept of a step pyramid

- The mastaba structures and their role in pyramid construction

Main Idea / Supporting Details

History of Pyramids

- First step pyramid for King Djoser

- Made by stacking 'mastabas'

- Many pharaohs built pyramids.

- Today, only 80 are left standing.


Q) "Who was the first king to have a step pyramid built?"

A) King Djoser.

Q) "What were the rectangular structures used in making the step pyramid called?"

A) They were called mastabas.

<Paragraph 3> Why did the Egyptians build such big tombs? Well, they believed in something called the afterlife, which means they thought there was life after death. They wanted to keep their bodies safe, so they mummified dead people and built tombs to protect them. Isn't that interesting?

Key Parts to Explain

- The concept of the afterlife in ancient Egyptian beliefs

- The purpose and significance of mummification

Main Idea / Supporting Details

Reason for Building Pyramids

- Egyptians believed in an afterlife (life after death)

- Mummified dead people.

- Built tombs to protect them.


Q) "Why did ancient Egyptians build tombs like the pyramids?"

A) They believed in the afterlife and wanted to keep their bodies safe.

Q) "What did the Egyptians do to dead bodies to preserve them?"

A) They mummified the bodies.

<Paragraph 4> Next to Khufu's pyramid, there are two more pyramids. One holds the king's son, and the other holds his grandson. And guess what else? There is a famous statue called the Great Sphinx nearby! It was built for another king named Khafre, and it has the body of a lion and the face of a human. How cool is that?

Key Parts to Explain

- The structures adjacent to Khufu's pyramid

- The unique features of the Great Sphinx

Main Idea / Supporting Details

Other Structures near Khufu's Pyramid

- Two more pyramids for Khufu’s son and grandson.

- The Great Sphinx statue for King Khafre: body of a lion and human face.


Q) "Who are the other two pyramids beside Khufu's pyramid meant for?"

A) One is for the king's son and the other for his grandson.

Q) "What makes the Great Sphinx distinct?"

A) It has the body of a lion and the face of a human, and it was built for King Khafre.



[Divide students into groups and have a short discussion on the following topics. After the discussion, have each group give a brief presentation.]

1. Why do students think the ancient Egyptians built such massive structures?

2. How do they think the workers felt, working on such large projects for so many years?



[Use a mobile device to research what other Egyptian artifacts are found besides the pyramids and sphinx.]

"I want each of you to use your mobile devices to find out what other Egyptian artifacts there are besides the pyramids and sphinx. If you find something special, raise your hand and let us know."