Ancient_01. The Great Pyramid of Khufu
Artifacts and Historic Sites at a Glance
The Pyramid of Khufu at a Glance
4th Grade (9-10 years old)
Background knowledge related to the ancient Egyptian pyramids can be acquired in a variety of ways. The goal is to turn historical facts into a series of memorable, interactive activities that actively engage students in the learning process and make it easier for them to retain the information.
Content (Time Duration: 40 minutes)
[Start the lesson by displaying a photo of a pyramid.
Select students in the class who have visited the site, or who have special information about the site, and ask them to share their stories.]
“Do you know what this is?”
‘What do you see in this picture?”
“Have any of you been to this place or have any special information? If so, describe it to us.”
[Show an image and explain what you'll be learning (textbook + videos + puzzle).]
“We will learn about this artifact through a textbook and learning videos, and eventually build it ourselves.”
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“Let's take a look at how to assemble the pyramid puzzle together.”
[Show this picture and talk about the names of the parts and what they were used for. Students' imaginations may come up with a variety of answers. Recognize that the purpose of this lesson is not to find answers, but to have a variety of discussions with students.]
1) King’s chamber
It is located in the center of the pyramid.
A stone coffin, or sarcophagus, was found without the king’s mummy in it.
2) Queen’s chamber
The queen’s coffin was not found here.
3) Stone blocks
The stone blocks get smaller as you go up.
4) Weight relieving chambers
Chambers made to spread weight from the ceiling.
5) Grand Gallery
It is 2 m wide, 8.5 m high, and 47 m long.
6) Ramp for climbing up
8) Ramp for climbing down
9) A tunnel dug for tomb robbery
[Use a projector or a TV to watch the video together. After watching it, ask students what they felt about the video, and remind them that the artifact was painstakingly created and we have an obligation to preserve it.]
“What did you think of the video?”
“How many people and how long do you think it would have taken to build something like this a long time ago, without the latest technology and machines?
“If you were to visit this site, what would you most like to do?”
[Below is a summary of the key parts of the artifact, underlining the important parts to help students remember them.
Open 'Google Maps' and type in those keywords to see where this artifact is actually located.]
Example) giza pyramid (click)
The Pyramid of Khufu is the only surviving structure of the Seven Wonders of the World, built in Giza, Egypt. It is believed that the tomb of King Khufu was built around 2560 BC over a period of 20 years.
● Location: A desert plateau of the Egyptian city of Giza
● When constructed: It was completed when King Khufu (2589 BC-2566 BC) ruled ancient Egypt.
● Size: Each side of the pyramid’s square base is 233 m long. The base spans 53,000 m2 and the pyramid’s volume is 2.5 million cubic meters. The height of the pyramid was shortened to 137 m from the original height of 147 m after the top 10 m part broke off.
● Materials: About 2.3 million stone blocks cut from the stones near Giza and limestone from the Nile River. Each stone weighs about 2.5 tons. The whole pyramid weighs almost 6 million tons.
- One of the Seven Wonders of the World.
- One of the three pyramids of Giza together with Khafre’s Pyramid and Menkaure’s Pyramid. As the biggest pyramid in Egypt, it is also called the Great Pyramid.
Interesting Story about Artifacts and Historic Sites
Pyramid of Khufu and Sphinx
4th Grade (9-10 years old)
- Understand the significance and construction of the Pyramid of Khufu.
- Recognize the evolution and designs of pyramids in ancient Egypt.
It's important to keep the session interactive. Asking open-ended questions will allow students to think critically about the topic and share their perspectives. Encouraging creativity in videos and pictures will make the lesson more engaging and memorable for them.
[Start the lesson by displaying a photo of a soccer field.]
“How many of you have been to a soccer game?”
[Show the image of the Pyramid of Khufu.]
“How many football fields would fit under this structure? Let's calculate together.”
Ex) 1 football field = 7,140m2, This pyramid = 53,000m2 (53,000/7,140≒7.42)
[Watch a short video together to help students understand the passage better. This should give students a visual sense of the culture, the people, and the environment.]
“We're going to watch a short video together to make learning this passage a little easier, and you can rewatch it at any time by scanning the QR code in the textbook.”
[Check the “Key Parts to Explain” and “Main Idea / Supporting Details” before the class. Then read through the content with your students and go through a simple question-and-answer format.]
<Paragraph 1> In Egypt, there is a gigantic pyramid near a city called Giza. It was built a long, long time ago by a king named Khufu. This pyramid is so big that it can fit ten soccer fields at its base, and it's as tall as a building with 45 floors! Can you imagine that? It took about 20 years to build this huge pyramid, and guess what? Over 100,000 workers helped to build it!
<Paragraph 2> Before Khufu, another king named Djoser wanted a special tomb, so he told his servants to build a step pyramid. They stacked rectangular structures called mastabas on top of each other to make it. After Djoser, many kings, called pharaohs, built pyramids with flat steps for hundreds of years. Today, only 80 pyramids are left standing.
<Paragraph 3> Why did the Egyptians build such big tombs? Well, they believed in something called the afterlife, which means they thought there was life after death. They wanted to keep their bodies safe, so they mummified dead people and built tombs to protect them. Isn't that interesting?
<Paragraph 4> Next to Khufu's pyramid, there are two more pyramids. One holds the king's son, and the other holds his grandson. And guess what else? There is a famous statue called the Great Sphinx nearby! It was built for another king named Khafre, and it has the body of a lion and the face of a human. How cool is that?
[Divide students into groups and have a short discussion on the following topics. After the discussion, have each group give a brief presentation.]
1. Why do students think the ancient Egyptians built such massive structures?
2. How do they think the workers felt, working on such large projects for so many years?
[Use a mobile device to research what other Egyptian artifacts are found besides the pyramids and sphinx.]
"I want each of you to use your mobile devices to find out what other Egyptian artifacts there are besides the pyramids and sphinx. If you find something special, raise your hand and let us know."