Egypt has a lot of hot desert, but the land near the Nile River is different. The Nile floods every year because of heavy rain, and this makes the soil very fertile. The Egyptians called this soil the 'Black Land' because it helped plants grow well. They grew lots of delicious food because of the floods.
Around 5,000 years ago, many people moved to live near the Nile River. It became like a busy highway with ships carrying goods up and down the river. People traded and new towns were built along the riverbanks.
Egypt was divided into upper and lower parts. A long time ago, a king named Menes from Upper Egypt went to war against Lower Egypt because he wanted the good land near the Nile River. He won, and Egypt became one united kingdom. After that, many kings ruled Egypt for about 3,000 years. That's a really long time! The Egyptians were smart and knew a lot about stars and math. They used math to count days and years and even built giant pyramids using math.