Around 2000 years ago, the city of Rome was built in Italy. Rome became very strong by making friends with other cities or by taking over them in wars. Both important people and regular people worked together in Rome.
By the year 264 BC, Rome had control over most of Italy after winning three wars against a city called Carthage, which was across the sea.
Soon, Rome controlled a huge area, including parts of Europe, Africa, and Asia. They had many slaves and became very rich from all the wars they won.
When the slaves rebelled, a general named Caesar took charge, but he was sadly killed. His son, Octavianus, became the first emperor of Rome. The Senate, a group of important leaders, gave him the special title 'Augustus,' which means a man of dignity.
Augustus knew that his father was killed because he argued with the Senate, so he decided to work together with them. Some emperors who came after Augustus were not very good, like Nero who was a mean ruler. But Emperor Vespasian was a good and peaceful leader. When Rome was peaceful, there were fewer wars in the world. This time is called 'Pax Romana,' which means Roman peace.