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Medieval_15. Machu Picchu

[South America_Peru]

Background Knowledge of Machu Picchu

A 15th-century Inca ruin, located on a mountain ridge (2,430 m above sea level) along the Urubamba Valley in Peru, belonging to the foothills of the Andes. Known in many languages as 'Machu Picchu', the site's name means 'Old Peak'. It is called "City in the Air", "City in the Air", "Lost City of the Incas", etc. 

  ● Location: In the Cusco Region of Peru 

  ● When constructed: 15th century

  ● Size: - The site measures approximately 13 km2.

               - There are about 200 stone buildings.

  ● Materials: Granite

  ● Features: - The site is located between Machu Picchu and Huayna Picchu, but the structures are mostly centered around Machu Picchu. The entire historic site is called the ‘City in the Clouds.’

                       - The city was unknown for 400 years until it was discovered by the American historian Hiram Bingham (1875–1965).

                       - Out of 185 mummies found in the cave below the city, 109 were women.

                       - Listed as a UNESCO World Heritage cultural and natural site in 1983.

1. Interesting Story about Artifacts and Historic Sites

Machu Picchu, the Inca City in the Clouds

There is a special city called Machu Picchu that many people visit in Peru. It's in a country called South America, which is by the Pacific Ocean. But reaching Machu Picchu is not easy because it's high up in the mountains called the Andes. The Inca people, who lived long ago, built this city. It got its name, Machu Picchu, from the Inca language, and it means "old mountain." The city was hidden for a very long time, and no one knew it was there, not even the people who came from Europe and took over Peru. It was like a secret city!

Machu Picchu is special because it still looks the same as it did a long time ago. The Inca built it using big stones, and it's quite big, covering an area of 13 square kilometers. The city has two parts, one on the south and one on the north. In the southern part, they made fields for farming, and in the northern part, there were about 200 houses, a palace for the king, a special temple, and a place where they made things. There is also a tall stone pillar on top of the city called Intihuatana. It was like a clock that told the Inca people when it was daytime. They thought it was a special place where they tied up the sun!

The Inca were amazing builders. They made buildings and walls using huge stones, and they didn't even need fancy tools. They also made waterways all around the city, and they built steps on the mountains for farming. Machu Picchu was probably built by two important kings of the Inca Empire named Pachacuti and Tupac. But we don't know for sure why they built it or where they went afterward. There are no written records left to tell us.

Some people think the Inca built Machu Picchu because it was a good place to grow crops, and it was cooler up in the mountains. Others think they built it for their religious ceremonies because they worshiped the sun. Whatever the reasons, it's a fascinating place that shows us how clever and skilled the Inca people were.