A long time ago, there were some churches called the Roman Catholic Church. But some people didn't like how things were going in those churches. They thought the churches were doing bad things. So, they decided to start their own churches. They were called the Protestant Church.
In England, there was a king named Henry VIII. He had a problem with the pope, who was the leader of the Roman Catholic Church. The pope didn't agree with Henry VIII's marriage, so he got mad. Henry VIII declared himself as the leader of the English church.
After that, a new group of people became powerful in Europe. They were called the bourgeoisie. They were regular citizens who became rich and important because of their knowledge and trading skills. They liked to do business and make money.
The bourgeoisie wanted a king who would help them with their trade. They also believed in something called the Divine Right of Kings. It meant they thought the king got his power from God. So, they supported the kings who had a lot of authority. This kind of king is called an absolute monarch. They had a big army and controlled everything in the country.
The best examples of such kings were Louis XIV, Philip II of Spain, and Queen Elizabeth I of England. Louis XIV was the king of France and lived in the Palace of Versailles. The nobles in the palace had to follow lots of fancy rules to show they were loyal to the king. But even though the king had a lot of power, he didn't take good care of the people. That's why the French Revolution happened.